UNIX to Plan 9 command translation

The command set of Plan 9 is similar to that of UNIX. The commands fall into several broad classes.

Some are new programs for old jobs: programs like ls(1), cat(1), and who(1) have familiar names and functions but are new, simpler implementations. Who, for example, is a shell script, while ps is just 163 lines of C code.

Some commands are essentially the same as their UNIX ancestors: awk(1), troff(1), and others have been converted to ANSI C and extended to handle Unicode, but are still the familiar tools.

Some are entirely new programs for old niches: the shell rc(1), text editors acme(1) and sam(1), debuggers acid(1) and db(1), and others displace the better-known UNIX tools with similar jobs.

Compatibility was not a requirement for the system. Where the old commands or notation seemed good enough, we kept them. When they didn't, we replaced them.

The following list of some UNIX commands, files, and shell terminology, which you can emulate in a Plan 9 system:

UNIX                       Plan 9 from Bell Labs

`command`                  `{ command }

.profile                   $home/lib/profile

^C (Ctrl+C)                DEL key -- doesn't work without rio(4) though.

~                          $home

~username                  /usr/username

"$@"                       $*

1>&2                       >[2=1]

apropos                    lookman(1) 

at specific-time           while (! ~ (`{ date }) (specific-time)); commands

cc                         one of ones in 0c(1) followed by the same of 0l(1)
                           pcc(1) for Standard C/POSIX programs

cp -r /foo/ /bar/          mkdir /bar/foo/ && dircp /foo/ /bar/foo/

crontab -e                 sam /cron/$user/cron

curl http://foo/bar        hget https://foo/bar > bar
wget http://foo/bar        (progress bar, -t for ascii) hget -v -o bar http://foo/bar |[2] aux/statusbar [-t] 'downloading'

cut                        awk -F ...

apt-get dist-upgrade       /usr/glenda/bin/rc/pull
rpm -Ua
yum -c update

apt-get install             9fs sources ; cd /n/sources
rpm -i package              /n/sources/contrib/fgb/root/rc/bin/contrib/install fgb/contrib ; contrib/install $who/$what
yum -c install package

df                         disk/kfscmd check 
                           echo fsys all df | con -l /srv/fscons
                           df in fossilcons(8)

ee                         sam
emacs                      acme

expr                       hoc -e

find                       du -a | grep pattern 
                           grep pattern `{du -a root} 
   -name                   du -a root | grep name 
   pattern in a file       grep -n pattern `{du -a root | awk '{print $2}'}
   -exec cp '{}' x ';'     cp `{ du -a | grep pattern } x

fsck                       echo fsys all check fix | con -l /srv/fscons
                           if running venti, for a thorough fix: echo fsys all check fix venti snapshot | con -l /srv/fscons

ftp                        ftpfs host.domain (Remote files apear in /n/ftp).

ftpd                       aux/listen ftp

getopt                     getflags(8)

groff -l                   troff | lp

grops                      dpost - see troff(1)

head                       sed 10q

hwclock                    cat '#r/rtc'

id                         echo $user 
                           cat /dev/user 
                           grep `{cat /dev/user} /adm/users 
                           grep $user /adm/users

iostat                     iostats(4)

ifconfig(IP address)       cat /net/ndb

ifconfig                   ip/ipconfig ether /net/ether0 add
                           ip/ipconfig # let dhcp do it

kill pid                   stop processname | rc
                           echo stop > /proc/pid/ctl
                           (in both cases, switch stop with start to get it back)

kill -9 pid                slay processname | rc
kill -KILL pid             echo kill > /proc/pid/ctl

ld                         one of the ones in 0l(1)

ls                         lc -F

lspci                      pci -v

make                       mk (not exactly the same)
                           if necessary, use make in ape/psh

man -k                     lookman(1)

less                       p

mount [-p flag]            bind(1) 
   -p                      ns(1)

mount /dev/fd0 /mnt        a: ; cd /n/a:

mount /dev/acd0 /mnt       9660srv
                           mkdir /n/9660
                           mount /srv/9660 /n/9660 /dev/sdD0/data

netcat -l                  aux/listen1 -t tcp!*!$port command

netstat [-r flag]          netstat(1) 
   -r                      cat /net/iproute

nfsstat                    iostats(4)

nslookup                   ndb/dnsquery

passwd                     auth/changeuser username (first time)
                           passwd (subsequent times)

paste [FILE] ...           pr -m [FILE] ...

PATH=$PATH:...             bind -a directory /bin

ping                       ip/ping

pkginfo                    wrap(8)

reboot                     fshalt -r (note that there is a reboot command, but it doesn't call fshalt)

rmdir                      rm(1)
                           With contents inside: rm -r dir

sh                         rc(1)
                           if necessary, ape/psh

shutdown                   fshalt(8)
                           echo reboot > /dev/reboot
                           echo panic > /dev/reboot

snoop                      snoopy(8)

source                     .

startx                     rio (replaces 8 and help)
launch (Andrew Project)
mux (Blit's wm)

tar xzf file.tgz           tar xf file.tgz

tcpdump                    snoopy(8)

traceroute                 ip/traceroute

tree                       du $* | awk '{print $2}' | sort | sed 's/[^\/]+\//	/g'

ufs{dump|restore}          yesterday(1) 

vipw                       [Adding a new user]

vlock                      http://mirtchovski.com/lanlp9/rlock
                           (specify password at invocation)

vmstat                     stats(1) 
                           cat /dev/sysstat 
                           cat /dev/swap

which                      whatis

xbiff                      faces

xclock                     clock

xditview                   troff | page
                           troff | proof

xload                      stats -l

xlock                      /n/sources/contrib/steve/conslock
                           (authenticates against authentication server)

xlogo                      window 'hget http://plan9.bell-labs.com/plan9/img/plan9bunnysmblack.jpg | page'

xman cat                   man -t cat | page

xv file.jpg                page file.jpg

xwininfo                   winwatch

yes                        while() { echo y }
yes arg                    while() { echo arg }